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George Martin

Sir George Henry Martin CBE (3 January 1926 – 8 March 2016) was an English record producer, arranger, composer, conductor, and musician. He was commonly referred to as the "Fifth Beatle" because of his extensive involvement in each of the Beatles' original albums. Martin's formal musical expertise and interest in novel recording practices facilitated the group's rudimentary musical education and desire for new musical sounds to record. Most of their orchestral arrangements and instrumentation were written or performed by Martin, and he played piano or keyboards on a number of their records. Their collaborations resulted in popular, highly acclaimed records with innovative sounds, such as the 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band—the first rock album to win a Grammy Award for Album of the Year.

Martin's career spanned more than six decades in music, film, television and live performance. Before working with the Beatles and other pop musicians, he produced comedy and novelty records in the 1950s and early 1960s as the head of EMI's Parlophone label, working with Peter Sellers, Spike Milligan and Bernard Cribbins, among others. His work with other Liverpool rock groups in the early–mid 1960s helped popularize the Merseybeat sound. In 1965, he left EMI and formed his own production company, Associated Independent Recording.

AllMusic has described Martin as the "world's most famous record producer". In his career, Martin produced 30 number-one hit singles in the United Kingdom and 23 number-one hits in the United States, and won six Grammy Awards. He also held a number of senior executive roles at media companies and contributed to a wide range of charitable causes, including his work for The Prince's Trust and the Caribbean island of Montserrat. In recognition of his services to the music industry and popular culture, he was made a Knight Bachelor in 1996.

Work with The Beatles[]

Brian Epstein approaches EMI[]

In November 1961, new Beatles manager Brian Epstein travelled to London to meet with record executives from EMI and Decca Records in the interest of obtaining a recording contract for his band. Epstein met with EMI's general marketing director Ron White, with whom he had a longstanding business relationship, and left a copy of the Beatles' German single with Tony Sheridan, "My Bonnie". White said he would play it for EMI's four A&R directors, including George Martin (though it later emerged that he neglected to do so, playing it only for two of them—Wally Ridley and Norman Newell). In mid December, White replied that EMI was not interested in signing the Beatles. By coincidence, Martin gave an interview that week in Disc magazine in which he explained that "beat groups" presented unique challenges for A&R directors, and that he sought a "distinct sound" when scouting them.

Martin claimed that he was contacted by Sid Colman of EMI music publisher Ardmore & Beechwood at the request of Epstein, though Colman's colleague Kim Bennett later disputed this. In any event, Martin arranged a meeting on 13 February 1962 with Epstein, who played for Martin the recording of the Beatles' failed January audition for Decca Records. Epstein recalled that Martin liked George Harrison's guitar playing and preferred Paul McCartney's singing voice to John Lennon's, though Martin himself recalled that he "wasn't knocked out at all" by the "lousy tape".

With Martin apparently uninterested, Ardmore & Beechwood's Colman and Bennett pressured EMI management to sign the Beatles in hopes of gaining the rights to Lennon–McCartney song publishing on Beatle records; Colman and Bennett even offered to pay for the expense of the Beatles' first EMI recordings. EMI managing director L. G. ("Len") Wood rejected this proposal. Separately, Martin's relationship with Wood became strained by spring 1962, as the two had strong disagreements over business matters and also Wood's disapproval of Martin's ongoing extramarital relationship with his secretary (and later wife), Judy. To appease Colman's interest in the Beatles, Wood directed Martin to sign the group.

Martin met with Epstein again on 9 May at EMI Studios in London, and informed him he would give the Beatles a standard recording contract with Parlophone, to record a minimum of six tracks in the first year. The royalty rate was to be one penny for each record sold on 85% of records, which was to be split among the four members and Epstein. They agreed to hold the Beatles' first recording date on 6 June 1962.

Early Beatles sessions, 1962[]

Though Martin later called the 6 June 1962 session at EMI's studio two an "audition", as he had never seen the band play before, the session was actually intended to record material for the first Beatles single. Ron Richards and his engineer Norman Smith recorded four songs—"Besame Mucho", "Love Me Do", "Ask Me Why", and "P.S. I Love You". Martin arrived during the recording of "Love Me Do"; between takes, he introduced himself to the Beatles and subtly changed the arrangement. The verdict was not promising, however, as Richards and Martin complained about Pete Best's drumming, and Martin thought their original songs were simply not good enough. In the control room, Martin asked the individual Beatles if there was anything they personally did not like, to which George Harrison replied, "I don't like your tie." That was the turning point, according to Smith, as John Lennon and Paul McCartney joined in with jokes and comic wordplay, that made Martin think that he should sign them to a contract for their wit alone. After deliberating for a time whether to make Lennon or McCartney the lead vocalist of the group, Martin decided he would let them retain their shared lead role: "Suddenly it hit me that I had to take them as they were, which was a new thing. I was being too conventional."

Though charmed by the Beatles' personalities, Martin was unimpressed with the musical repertoire from their first session. "I didn't think the Beatles had any song of any worth—they gave me no evidence whatsoever that they could write hit material", he claimed later. He arranged for the Beatles to record a cover of Mitch Murray's "How Do You Do It" at a 4 September session, with the Beatles now featuring Ringo Starr on drums. The Beatles also re-recorded "Love Me Do" and played an early version of "Please Please Me", which Martin thought was "dreary" and needed to be sped up. Though Martin was sure "How Do You Do It" could be a hit, the Beatles hated the song's style and Murray disliked the Beatles' recording of it. Additionally, Ardmore & Beechwood protested Martin's plan to issue an A-side that was not a Lennon–McCartney song. Martin then reluctantly decided to have "Love Me Do" issued as the A-side of the Beatles' first single and save "How Do You Do It" for another occasion. (In April 1963, Martin achieved a No. 1 hit with the song as recorded by Beatle contemporaries Gerry and the Pacemakers.)

Martin was dissatisfied with Starr's 4 September performance and resolved to use a session drummer for their next recording session. On 11 September 1962, the Beatles recorded "Love Me Do" for a third time with Andy White playing drums, as well as the B-side of their first single, "P.S. I Love You", and a sped-up version of "Please Please Me". Starr was asked to play tambourine and maracas, and although he complied, he was definitely "not pleased". Due to an EMI library error, a 4 September version with Starr playing drums was issued on the British single release; afterwards, the tape was destroyed, and the 11 September recording with Andy White on drums was used for all subsequent releases. (Martin later praised Starr's drumming, calling him "probably ... the finest rock drummer in the world today".)

Despite Martin's doubts about the song, "Love Me Do" steadily climbed in the British charts, peaking at number 17 in late November 1962. With his doubts about the Beatles' songwriting abilities now quashed, on 16 November Martin told the band they should re-record "Please Please Me" and make it their second single. He also suggested the Beatles record a full album (LP), a suggestion Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn called "genuinely mind-boggling", given how little exposure the Beatles had achieved so far. On 26 November, the Beatles attempted "Please Please Me" a third time. After the recording Martin looked over the mixing desk and said, "Gentlemen, you have just made your first number one record". Martin directed Epstein to find a good publisher, as he believed Ardmore & Beechwood had done nothing to promote "Love Me Do"; this led them to Dick James, a business acquaintance of Martin.

Martin considered recording the Beatles' first LP as a live album at their home venue in Liverpool, The Cavern Club, and promoted this idea in an NME interview in late November. However, Martin found the Cavern unsuitable for recording in a mid-December visit, and he decided to record the group in the studio instead.

Commercial breakout, 1963–1964[]

1963[]

As Martin had predicted, "Please Please Me" reached no. 1 on most of the British singles charts upon its release in January 1963. "From that moment, we simply never stood still", he reflected. For the Beatles' first LP, Martin had the group record 10 tracks to pair with the A- and B-sides of their first two singles—for 14 tracks in total. They accomplished this in one marathon recording session, on 11 February 1963, with the Beatles recording a mix of Lennon–McCartney originals and covers from their stage act. Nine days later, Martin overdubbed a piano part to the song "Misery" and a celesta on "Baby It's You". The resulting album, Please Please Me, became a huge success in the UK, reaching no. 1 on the charts in May and staying there for 30 consecutive weeks until replaced by the Beatles' second album, With the Beatles. Please Please Me was the first non-soundtrack album to spend more than one year consecutively inside the top ten of what became the Official UK Albums Chart (with 62 weeks).

At this early stage of their working relationship, Martin played a major role in refining and arranging the Beatles' self-written songs to make them commercially appealing: "I taught them the importance of the hook. You had to get people's attention in the first ten seconds, and so I would generally get hold of their song and 'top and tail' it—make a beginning and end. And also make sure it ran for about two-and-a-half minutes, so that it would fit DJs' programmes". "I would meet them in the studio to hear a new number. I would perch myself on a high stool and John and Paul would stand around me with their acoustic guitars and play and sing it. ... Then I would make suggestions to improve it and we'd try it again", he recalled. The Beatles' frenetic recording schedule continued on 5 March 1963, as they recorded "From Me to You", "Thank You Girl", and an early version of "One After 909". Martin altered the arrangement of "From Me to You", substituting the Beatles' idea for a guitar intro with a vocalized "da-da-da-da-da-dum-dum-da", backed by overdubbed harmonica. "From Me to You" reached no. 1 in the UK singles charts in early May, staying there for seven weeks.

The Beatles returned to EMI Studios on 1 July to record a new single, "She Loves You". Martin liked the song but was skeptical of its closing chord, a major sixth cluster, which he found cliché. The Beatles, now increasingly confident in their songwriting, pushed back. As Paul McCartney recalled, "We said 'It's such a great sound it doesn't matter; we've got to have it'". Martin and recording engineer Norman Smith changed the studio microphone arrangement for "She Loves You", giving the bass and drums a more prominent sound on the record. "She Loves You" was released in late August and instantly became a massive hit in the UK, signalling the beginning of national Beatlemania and becoming the best-selling UK single by any artist in the 1960s.

Sometime in 1963, Martin and Brian Epstein arranged a loose formula to record two Beatles albums and four singles per year. The Beatles began work on their second LP on 18 July. Like their debut album, this record reflected the repertoire of the Beatles' contemporary stage act—at this time a mix of Lennon–McCartney originals and American R&B hits, particularly from Motown. Additional album sessions followed on 30 July and into September–October. Martin played piano on several of the tracks, including "Money (That's What I Want)", "You Really Got a Hold On Me", and "Not a Second Time", and also played Hammond organ on "I Wanna Be Your Man". Martin was particularly impressed with the Lennon–McCartney tune "It Won't Be Long" and chose it to be the album opener. With the Beatles came out on 22 November 1963 and spent 21 weeks atop the albums chart.

Martin and the Beatles recorded their next single, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" on 17 October—their first recording session with four-track recording. Impressed with the song, Martin merely suggested adding handclaps and adding compression to Lennon's rhythm guitar sound to imitate the sound of an organ. The single's B-side, "This Boy", featured complex three-part harmonies by Lennon, McCartney, and Harrison that Martin arranged. "I Want to Hold Your Hand" became another huge seller, staying at no. 1 in the UK for five weeks—and, in January 1964, becoming the group's (and Martin's) first no. 1 in the US. The song became the US year-end no. 1 record of 1964.

1964[]

On 29 January 1964, Martin and Smith traveled to Paris, where the Beatles were performing a residency, to have them record German-language versions of "She Loves You" and "I Want to Hold Your Hand" for the West German market. The Beatles initially refused to record these versions, forcing Martin to barge into their hotel room and insist they come to the studio. They meekly complied, recording "Komm, gib mir deine Hand / Sie liebt dich". They also recorded what was to be their next no. 1 single, "Can't Buy Me Love", which was the British year-end no. 1. Martin tweaked the arrangement by having part of the chorus open the song as an intro, so "it grabbed people".

Martin traveled to New York with the Beatles on 7 February, as the band embarked on their first visit to America—including landmark performances on The Ed Sullivan Show. Martin and Capitol Records planned to record a live album of one of the Beatles' appearances at Carnegie Hall, but they were stymied by the American Federation of Musicians' refusal to allow Martin, a non-union member, to participate in the recording.

In late February, the band re-entered the studio and began recording the soundtrack album to the Beatles' upcoming untitled feature film. The film, album, and lead single were all titled "A Hard Day's Night". Martin and George Harrison played piano and guitar, respectively, at half-speed for the song's solo, which was then played back at normal speed on the record. In addition to producing the Beatles' original songs for the album—the first and only to exclusively feature Lennon–McCartney songs—Martin orchestrated several instrumental numbers for the film. The film was a success, and the album and single both reached no. 1 in the UK and US when all three were released in July. Martin received an Academy Award nomination for best film score.

When Ringo Starr fell ill with laryngitis just before the Beatles' 1964 world tour began in early June, Martin recruited session drummer Jimmie Nicol as a temporary replacement. Martin joined them for part of their August/September North American tour, recording their performance at the Hollywood Bowl. (Overwhelming crowd noise made the recording unsuitable for release until, in 1977, Martin spliced some of the performances with others from their 1965 visit to the Hollywood Bowl; this was issued as The Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl, which made no. 2 in the US and no. 1 in the UK.)

The Beatles began recording their next studio album, Beatles for Sale in August, though the sessions continued intermittently through late October and the record was released on 4 December. Martin observed that the Beatles were "war weary" during many of these sessions, and the album included six covers because Lennon and McCartney had not written enough songs to fill out the record. The album included a February 1965 US no. 1 single, "Eight Days a Week" (which was not released in the UK). These sessions also produced a December 1964 single, "I Feel Fine", that reached no. 1 in the UK and US and was among the first pop records to feature feedback. Beatles for Sale also featured new percussion sounds on several tracks, such as timpani and chocalho. Martin contributed piano on their cover of "Rock and Roll Music". Beatles for Sale was the first album for which the Beatles were present for mixing. The album reached no. 1 in the UK but was not released in the US.

Shift to studio experimentation, 1965–1966[]

1965[]

In mid-February 1965, Martin and the Beatles began five months of sessions to record the music for their second film, Help!. The Beatles adopted new studio techniques for these sessions, typically overdubbing vocals and other sounds onto a carefully laid rhythm track. The group by now had grown confident in the studio, and Martin encouraged them to explore new ideas for songs, such as an outro to "Ticket to Ride" that was at a faster tempo than the rest of song. ("Ticket to Ride" reached no. 1 in the US and UK upon release a single.) The band continued to experiment with unusual instruments, such as an alto flute solo for "You've Got to Hide Your Love Away" scored by Martin. Notably, it was Martin's idea to score a string quartet accompaniment for "Yesterday" against McCartney's initial reluctance. Martin played the song in the style of Bach to show McCartney the voicings that were available. "Yesterday" (not released in the UK) became a US no. 1 and one of the most covered songs of all time. Help! and its eponymous single topped the charts in both countries.

The group reconvened in October and November to record another album in time for the holiday shopping season. Rubber Soul continued the Beatles' experimentation with new sounds and contained several groundbreaking tracks. "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" featured George Harrison on sitar, making it one of the first Western pop records to feature Indian instrumentation. (Martin had previously recorded sitar on a 1959 Peter Sellers comedy record.) On "Think For Yourself", Paul McCartney used a Tone Bender fuzzbox to record a heavily distorted bass line—the first known use of a fuzz pedal on bass guitar. The shimmering electric guitar sound on "Nowhere Man" was achieved by repeatedly reprocessing the signal to increase the treble frequencies, beyond the EQ limits permitted for EMI engineers. Martin himself recorded a Baroque-style piano solo on John Lennon's "In My Life", recording the tape at half-speed and playing it back at normal speed so the piano sounded like a harpsichord. Though Martin didn't play a harpsichord on the record, "In My Life" inspired other record producers to begin incorporating the instrument in their arrangements of pop records. Martin also composed the notes of the guitar solo Harrison played on "Michelle", which won the 1967 Grammy Award for Song of the Year.

The Rubber Soul sessions also included the double A-sided single "Day Tripper"/"We Can Work It Out", released along with the album in early December 1965. This was Britain's first example of a double A-sided record. Both sides reached no. 1 in the UK, and "We Can Work It Out" topped the charts in the US. Rubber Soul also hit no. 1 in both countries. Rubber Soul received strong critical acclaim upon its release and proved highly influential among the Beatles' musical contemporaries, such as the Beach Boys. Martin sensed a shift in how the group was recording albums:

I think Rubber Soul was the first of the albums that presented a new Beatles to the world. Up to this point we had been making albums that were rather like a collection of their singles. And now, we really were beginning to think about albums as a bit of art in their own right. We were thinking about the album as an entity of its own, and Rubber Soul was the first one to emerge in this way.

In early November, Martin scored orchestral renditions of Beatles songs for the taping of the Granada Television special The Music of Lennon & McCartney, which aired on 16–17 December.

1966[]

In early January 1966, the Beatles and Martin gathered at CineTele Sound Studios in London to re-record vocal and instrumental tracks from the band's August 1965 concert performance at Shea Stadium. The resulting tracks were issued as the soundtrack to the TV documentary, The Beatles at Shea Stadium.

The Beatles re-entered EMI Studios in April 1966, with the group's exploration of recording at Stax Records' studio in Memphis—without Martin there to produce—having been scuttled by media leaks. The sessions of the Revolver album began with a highly experimental track, "Tomorrow Never Knows"—a John Lennon song inspired by Timothy Leary's book, The Psychedelic Experience. The song featured several innovations in pop recording, including the use of a tanpura drone loop throughout the song, a backwards guitar solo, sped-up tape loops to produce strange sound effects, and artificial double tracking (ADT) and a rotating Leslie speaker on Lennon's vocal. (Martin's joking technical description of ADT to Lennon coined the term "flanging" in music.) Martin worked closely with EMI engineers Geoff Emerick and Ken Townsend to achieve these radical effects. Martin added tack piano to the song.

Other Revolver tracks featured musical departures for the group, as well. For Paul McCartney's "Eleanor Rigby", Martin scored and conducted a strings-only accompaniment inspired by Bernard Herrmann's score for the Alfred Hitchcock thriller Psycho. Emerick placed the studio microphones unusually close to the instruments for this score. George Harrison's Hindustani-style "Love You To" included sitar, tabla, and tanpura played by Harrison and musicians from the Asian Music Circle. Lennon's "I'm Only Sleeping" was recorded at a fast tape speed and then slowed down to achieve a drowsy, dream-like sound. "Got to Get You Into My Life" became the first Beatles song recorded with a brass section (double-tracked), and "For No One" featured a French horn solo scored by Martin and played by Alan Civil. "Yellow Submarine" included nautical-themed sound effects from EMI's sound library, many of them from Martin's prior productions of comedy records. Martin added a honky-tonk piano solo on "Good Day Sunshine".

The first single produced during the Revolver sessions was "Paperback Writer"/"Rain". Inspired by the pronounced bass sound of contemporary American R&B records, this single featured McCartney's Rickenbacker 4001 bass more prominently than previous Beatle records. (This was achieved by surreptitiously flouting EMI's equipment rules by using a reverse-wired bass amplifier as a microphone.) "Paperback Writer" featured three-part harmonies arranged by Martin and mixed to have a fluttering echo sound. "Rain", meanwhile, contained a slowed-down rhythm track and a backwards outro. "Paperback Writer" reached no. 1 in the US and UK. "Eleanor Rigby" and "Yellow Submarine" were released along with the finished album as a double A-sided single, with both sides reaching the top of the charts in the UK.

Revolver was released in August to highly favourable critical reaction, particularly in the UK. The album received a nomination for the 1967 Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Retrospective criticism has recognized it as being among the finest pop albums ever made, with numerous critics listing it at no. 1 all-time.

Sgt. Pepper and Magical Mystery Tour, 1966–1967[]

"Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane"[]

By the time the Beatles resumed recording on 24 November 1966, they had decided to discontinue touring and focus their creative energies on the recording studio. Martin reflected, "the time had come for experiment. The Beatles knew it, and I knew it." They began working on a John Lennon composition, "Strawberry Fields Forever", which began as a simple arrangement of guitar, drums, and Mellotron. They remade the song the next week in a new key and tempo and with added instrumentation, including piano and bass guitar. Between 6–15 December, they attempted yet another arrangement, this time with cellos and a brass section scored by Martin, a large percussion section, swarmandal, and overdubbed backwards cymbals. Lennon asked Martin to combine takes 7 and 26 of the song, even though they were recorded at different tempos and in different keys. Martin, Ken Townsend, and Geoff Emerick accomplished Lennon's unusual request by carefully speeding up take 7 and slowing down take 26 so they were nearly equal in key and tempo. Martin mixed the track to include a false ending.

Soon after, the band began work on Paul McCartney's "Penny Lane", which featured a piccolo trumpet solo that was requested by McCartney after hearing the instrument on a BBC broadcast. McCartney hummed the melody that he wanted, and Martin notated it for David Mason, the classically trained trumpeter. Martin also orchestrated a larger brass and woodwind score with trumpets, piccolo, flutes, oboe, and flugelhorn.

By January 1967, EMI and Capitol Records executives were restless for a new Beatles single. In mid-February, the group responded by issuing "Strawberry Fields Forever"/"Penny Lane" as a double A-side. The single drew critical praise for its musical and recording inventiveness, with "Penny Lane" reaching no. 1 in the US. However, both sides of the single reached no. 2 in the UK, becoming the first British Beatles single in four years not to top the charts. (The sides competed for radio airplay, hurting each side's chart performance.) Though the Beatles were not bothered by their failure to reach no. 1, Martin blamed himself for the incident and called it "the biggest mistake of my professional life".

Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band[]

The Beatles' late 1966 sessions stretched into April 1967, forming what became Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band—a record continuing the Beatles' and Martin's imaginative use of the studio to create new sounds on record. Martin was involved as arranger throughout the album, starting with an overdubbed clarinet section on "When I'm Sixty-Four", recorded in December 1966.

By the time of Pepper, the Beatles had immense power at Abbey Road. So did I. They used to ask for the impossible, and sometimes they would get it. At the beginning of their recording career, I used to boss them about. ... By the time we got to Pepper, though, that had all changed. I was very much the collaborator. Their ideas were coming through thick and fast, and they were brilliant. All I did was help make them real.

Martin scored the brass overdubs for the album's title track, as well as on "Good Morning Good Morning". It was Martin's idea to segue the chicken clucking sound at the end of "Good Morning Good Morning" into the guitar lick that opens the reprise of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band". For "Within You Without You", Martin arranged a score that combined Indian and Western classical music. Martin used vari-speed editing to alter the recording speed of several of the album's vocal tracks, including "When I'm Sixty-Four", "Lovely Rita", and "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". He and Geoff Emerick superimposed crowd noise sound effects onto the title track and crossfaded the song into "With a Little Help from My Friends", mimicking a live performance.

Martin played instruments on several songs, including the piano on "Lovely Rita" and the harpsichord on "Fixing a Hole". He played numerous instruments in the recording of "Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!", including a foot-pumped harmonium, Lowrey organ, glockenspiel, and Mellotron. For the song's psychedelic circus-themed instrumental breaks, he had engineers cut tapes of numerous carnival-instrument recordings into tape fragments, then reassemble them at random.

The first Beatles song that Martin did not arrange was "She's Leaving Home", as he had a prior engagement to produce a Cilla Black session, so McCartney contacted arranger Mike Leander to do it. Martin called this "one of the biggest hurts of my life", but still produced the recording and conducted the orchestra himself.

Martin applied heavy tape echo to John Lennon's voice in "A Day in the Life". He worked with McCartney to implement the 24-bar orchestral climaxes in the middle and end of the song, produced by instructing a 45-piece orchestra to gradually play from their instruments' lowest note to their highest. The song's extended piano fadeout (on which Martin played harmonium) concluded with a dog's whistle and a sped-up tape of the Beatles speaking gibberish on the run-out groove. Music critics have hailed the song as among the Beatles' best work and a groundbreaking pop record.

Sgt. Pepper cost £25,000 to produce (equivalent to £483,000 in 2021), far more than any previous Beatles record. During the album's recording, Martin periodically worried whether the album's avant-garde inventiveness would alienate the general public; such concerns were alleviated by previewing tracks to guests, such as Capitol Records president Alan Livingston, who was "speechless in admiration". When Sgt. Pepper was finally released in early June 1967, it received widespread acclaim from music critics, with a Times critic deeming it "a decisive moment in the history of Western civilisation". The album reached no. 1 in both the US and UK and became the best-selling album in the UK by any artist both in 1967 and for the entire 1960s. In 1968, it became the first rock album to win a Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Pepper's accolades also raised Martin's public profile as a record producer.

"All You Need Is Love" broadcast[]

In May 1967, Beatles manager Brian Epstein agreed (without the Beatles' knowledge) to have the group record a song live on the world's first live global television broadcast, Our World, on 25 June. The band decided to record Lennon's "All You Need is Love" for the occasion, which they felt would promote a positive message to the world. Martin believed it was too risky to record the entire track on the live broadcast, so he had the Beatles record a backing track on 14 June at Olympic Studios—with the unusual arrangement of Lennon on harpsichord, McCartney on double bass, Harrison on violin, and Starr on drums, with Eddie Kramer as audio engineer. Five days later, at EMI Studios, Martin overdubbed a piano, while Lennon added vocals and a banjo part. The band also asked Martin to write an orchestral score for the song, starting with the beginning of "La Marseillaise". The score for the fade-out of the song included bits from Bach's Inventions and Sinfonias, "Greensleeves", and "In the Mood". On 23 June, Martin recorded an orchestral track. (Though "In the Mood" was not in copyright, Glenn Miller's arrangement of the song was; this forced EMI to subsequently pay a royalty to Miller's estate.)

Martin learned the day before the broadcast, during a rehearsal, that a TV camera would be live in the EMI Studio One control room to show Martin, Geoff Emerick, and Richard Lush operating the controls for the recording. Emerick recalled that Martin turned to the engineers and said, "You two had better smarten yourselves up! You're about to become international TV stars!" During the 25 June simulcast, the Beatles' segment started broadcasting 40 seconds early, startling Martin and Emerick and forcing them to quickly hide a Scotch whisky supply they were using to calm their nerves. Worse, the production truck lost contact with the studio cameramen just before the segment started; this forced Martin to verbally relay the producer's instructions to the camera crew live.

Despite these technical glitches, the Beatles, the orchestra, and the assembled crowd of Beatle friends recorded a seamless live take of "All You Need Is Love" to an audience in the hundreds of millions. After the broadcast, Lennon re-recorded part of his vocal and Starr added a tambourine overdub. The song was quickly released as a single with "Baby You're a Rich Man" as a B-side, reaching no. 1 in numerous countries, including the US and UK. "All You Need Is Love" was the first Beatles single on which Martin received a written credit as producer.

Magical Mystery Tour[]

Before Sgt Pepper was even released, the Beatles held several sessions in April–June 1967 to record additional songs for a yet-to-be-determined purpose. These included "Magical Mystery Tour", "Baby You're a Rich Man", "You Know My Name (Look Up the Number)", and two songs later included on Yellow Submarine. Martin later described many of these sessions as lacking the strong creative focus the band had displayed in recording Sgt. Pepper. Martin, showing less interest in these sessions, came uncharacteristically unprepared for the "Magical Mystery Tour" trumpet overdub session on 3 May, forcing the session musicians to improvise a score for themselves.

"I tended to lay back on Magical Mystery Tour and let them have their head. Some of the sounds weren't very good. Some were brilliant, but some were bloody awful.

After taking most of the summer off, the Beatles and Martin recorded "Your Mother Should Know" at Chappell Studios in London on 23 August. Four days later, Brian Epstein died of an accidental drug overdose, devastating the band and Martin. McCartney urged the group to focus on the Magical Mystery Tour film project, and they resumed recording with Lennon's "I Am the Walrus". For this song, which Martin initially disliked but grew to appreciate, he provided a quirky and original arrangement for brass, violins, cellos, and the Mike Sammes Singers vocal ensemble singing nonsense phrases. Martin, at Lennon's request, also fed a live BBC radio recording of William Shakespeare's King Lear into the mixing desk for the song's fadeout.

Magical Mystery Tour was released as an EP in the UK in December 1967 and an LP in the US in late November; it reached no. 2 and no. 1 on those charts, respectively. It was nominated for Grammy Album of the Year in 1969. McCartney's "Hello, Goodbye", which featured orchestral overdubs scored and supervised by Martin, was issued as a single and reached no. 1 in both the US and UK.

Yellow Submarine and the White Album, 1967–1968[]

Yellow Submarine soundtrack[]

In early 1967, Brian Epstein and media producer Al Brodax signed a contract to have the Beatles provide four original songs to support an animated feature film, Yellow Submarine. The Beatles were initially contemptuous of the project, planning to relegate only their weakest songs to the soundtrack. The first song recorded for the film was George Harrison's "Only a Northern Song", which was debuted during the Sgt. Pepper sessions but rejected for inclusion by the other band members and Martin. The second was "All Together Now", a children's sing-along recorded without Martin's involvement. The third was "It's All Too Much", also recorded without Martin in attendance. The final original song for the film, "Hey Bulldog", was not recorded until February 1968.

Martin composed the film's orchestral scores, which comprised the second half of the film soundtrack. Martin composed these pieces while the Beatles retreated to India during the spring of 1968. Martin claimed to take inspiration for the score from Maurice Ravel, "the musician I admire most".

The Yellow Submarine film debuted on 17 July 1968 and was favorably received by critics. However, Martin chose to re-record the album's score after the film's release, delaying the soundtrack's release until January 1969. Yellow Submarine reached no. 2 in the US and no. 3 in the UK. Martin and three of the Beatles received a 1970 Grammy nomination for Best Sound Track Album.

The Beatles ("White Album")[]

The Beatles gathered for a brief spate of sessions in February 1968 before their planned retreat to India with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. These sessions produced a no. 1 UK single, "Lady Madonna", backed by "The Inner Light". While in India, the band members composed a large number of songs; they recorded these songs as demos at George Harrison's Kinfauns home.

By the time of the White Album sessions in mid-1968, Martin found himself in competition with Apple Electronics's eccentric inventor, "Magic Alex", for the Beatles' interest in studio production. Other new personnel attending Beatles sessions were Lennon's girlfriend, Yoko Ono, and Martin's protégé, Chris Thomas. Engineer Geoff Emerick, frustrated by the Beatles' increasingly unpleasant demeanor at many of the sessions, quit partway through the album's recording. Additionally, the Beatles began recording lengthy, repetitive rehearsal tracks in the studio. With all these disruptions to the band's studio dynamic, Martin consciously stayed in the background of many sessions, reading stacks of newspapers in the control booth until his guidance or assistance was sought.

Parts of the White Album sessions required Martin and his engineers to attend to simultaneous recordings in different studios, such as an occasion when Lennon was working on the musique concrète "Revolution 9" in Studio Three, while McCartney recorded "Blackbird" in Studio Two. Though Lennon and Ono were responsible for most of the final mix on "Revolution 9", Martin and Emerick applied a STEED delay effect to the track. Martin scored a fiddle arrangement on Ringo Starr's first composition, "Don't Pass Me By". He also scored brass arrangements on "Revolution 1", "Honey Pie", "Savoy Truffle", and "Martha My Dear".

Martin played celesta on the album's closing track, "Good Night", and conducted its orchestral arrangement. He also played harmonium on Lennon's "Cry Baby Cry".

Martin recommended the Beatles choose the 14 best tracks from the sessions and issue a standard LP. The band overruled him, however, and chose to issue a double album. The sequencing and cross-fading of the album required a 24-hour session attended by Martin, Lennon, and McCartney. The album was released in late November to strong commercial and critical success, reaching no. 1 in the UK and US for eight and nine weeks, respectively.

The White Album sessions produced a no. 1 single, "Hey Jude", backed with "Revolution". Martin scored a 36-piece orchestra for "Hey Jude"'s extended coda.

Get Back/Let It Be and Abbey Road, 1969–1970[]

Get Back/Let It Be[]

In early January 1969, the Beatles gathered at Twickenham Film Studios to compose and record new material for a live album. The group sought a raw, unedited sound for the album, with Lennon telling Martin that he didn't want any "production shit". Filmmaker Michael Lindsay-Hogg directed a film crew to observe the Beatles' work sessions for use in a feature documentary film. The band's working relationships faltered during these sessions, with Harrison quitting the group for several days out of frustration. (Martin later admitted he had contributed to Harrison's status as a "second-class" Beatle.) Martin decided not to attend many of these tense, aimless sessions, leaving balance engineer Glyn Johns to act as de facto producer.

In mid-January, the Beatles relocated their work to the basement studio of Apple Records at 3 Savile Row, where their work ethic and mood improved. As Magic Alex had failed to deliver on a promised 72-track studio there, Martin called EMI to request two mobile four-track mixing desks and soundproofing equipment to enable a suitable recording environment. The band was soon joined by keyboard player Billy Preston, who attended the remaining sessions and contributed to the Beatles' new compositions. The Beatles and Preston performed on the roof of Apple Records on 30 January 1969, while Martin recorded the impromptu concert in the building's basement studio. This concert performance—the Beatles' last—produced recordings of five new tracks, including a new single, "Get Back". The next day, the band returned to the basement studio to record several more, including future singles "Let It Be" and "The Long and Winding Road".

In March 1969, the Beatles rejected a proposed mix by Johns for a Get Back LP, scuttling hopes for a public release in the near term. The next month, they released "Get Back" as a single—though without a producer credit, as EMI was unable to determine whether Martin or Johns deserved the credit. "Get Back" reached no. 1 in the UK and US. In May, Martin and Johns worked together on another mix of Get Back—which the Beatles also rejected. Martin began at this time to consider that the Beatles might be finished as a commercial act. The Beatles rejected yet another Glyn Johns mix of the album in January 1970. Martin supervised the final Beatles recording session (without Lennon) on 3 January 1970, when the group recorded "I Me Mine". In early March 1970, "Let It Be" was released and reached no. 1 in the US (and no. 2 in the UK).

In late March and early April 1970, Phil Spector remixed the album—now known as Let It Be—and added a series of orchestral and choral overdubs to several tracks. Martin (along with McCartney) was critical of these embellishments, calling them "so uncharacteristic of the clean sounds the Beatles had always used". The album was finally released in May 1970, after McCartney had publicly announced he was leaving the Beatles. When EMI informed Martin that he would not get a production credit because Spector produced the final version, Martin commented, "I produced the original, and what you should do is have a credit saying 'Produced by George Martin, over-produced by Phil Spector'."

Abbey Road[]

The first song for what became the Abbey Road album, "I Want You (She's So Heavy)", was recorded on 22 February 1969 at Trident Studios without Martin. However, the Beatles did not inform Martin they planned to record a new album until later in the spring, when McCartney asked if Martin would produce it for them. "Only if you let me produce it the way we used to", he replied; McCartney agreed. Lennon and McCartney also persuaded Geoff Emerick to rejoin their sessions as balance engineer, beginning with a recording of the single "The Ballad of John and Yoko" in mid-April; the single, backed with "Old Brown Shoe", reached no. 1 in the UK after its 30 May release.

Martin's first album session came on 5 May, when he supervised overdubs to Harrison's "Something". Martin soon set to help the Beatles develop the second side of the album into a "medley" of songs, akin to a rock opera. Martin guided the band using his knowledge of classical music to conceive a fluid, cohesive series of songs with repeating themes and motifs. Sessions recommenced in July and continued into August. Martin played an electric harpsichord accompaniment to "Because". He also composed and orchestrated orchestral arrangements for four of the album's songs.

Abbey Road was released on 26 September 1969, topping the charts in both the US and Britain. The following year, Martin was nominated as its producer for Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Martin took particular pride in the symphonic medley on side two, claiming later, "There's far more of me on Abbey Road than on any of their other albums". The album's double A-sided single, "Something"/"Come Together", reached no. 1 in the US.

Post-breakup Beatles work[]

Beatle solo records[]

Martin produced the first solo album by a member of the Beatles after John Lennon had privately announced he was leaving the group—Ringo Starr's March 1970 standards album, Sentimental Journey.

Martin next worked with Paul McCartney to score orchestral arrangements on four songs for the 1971 album Ram. Martin then paired with McCartney and his band, Wings to produce the "Live and Let Die" theme song for the 1973 James Bond film of the same name. Martin arranged the orchestral production for the song, which reached no. 2 in the US singles chart. Martin's work on the song earned him the Grammy Award for Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist(s) at the 16th Annual Grammy Awards in 1974.

Martin and McCartney reunited in late 1980 to record "We All Stand Together", a song for a Rupert Bear animated short film, Rupert and the Frog Song. The song was released as a single in 1984, reaching no. 3 in the UK chart. The late 1980 sessions continued into the end of 1981 in AIR's studios in Montserrat and London, producing what became McCartney's 1982 Tug of War. Ringo Starr contributed drums to the top-10 US single "Take It Away". Tug of War was met with critical acclaim and topped both the US and UK album charts; the album's most successful single was "Ebony and Ivory", a McCartney duet with Stevie Wonder that also reached no. 1 in the UK and US. Tug of War and two of its tracks were nominated for a total of five Grammys.

McCartney and Martin used leftover material from Tug of War to start a new album, Pipes of Peace, which was released in 1983. The lead single, "Say Say Say", was a duet between McCartney and Michael Jackson that reached no. 1 in the US and no. 2 in the UK. Martin scored a horn arrangement for the song. The album's second single, the title track, reached no. 1 in the UK. Pipes of Peace did not receive the high acclaim of Tug of War, though it reached no. 4 on the UK album charts.

Martin produced the soundtrack album to McCartney's 1984 film, Give My Regards to Broad Street. Though the film was poorly received, the soundtrack reached no. 1 in the UK and was supported by a UK no. 2 single, "No More Lonely Nights". The soundtrack also featured numerous reinterpretations of McCartney Beatles classics.

Martin mixed McCartney's 1987 no. 10 UK single, "Once Upon a Long Ago". He recorded orchestral overdubs for McCartney's 1990 "Put It There" and 1993 "C'Mon People" singles. He provided additional orchestration on several tracks on McCartney's 1997 album, Flaming Pie, and co-produced the song "Calico Skies".

In 1998, at Yoko Ono's request, Martin scored an orchestral arrangement to the 1980 John Lennon demo of "Grow Old with Me", which appeared in the John Lennon Anthology. Martin's son, Giles, played bass.

The Beatles Anthology[]

Martin oversaw post-production on The Beatles Anthology (which was originally entitled The Long and Winding Road) in 1994 and 1995, working again with Geoff Emerick. Martin decided to use an old 8-track analogue mixing console – which EMI learned an engineer still had – to mix the songs for the project, instead of a modern digital console. He explained this by saying that the old console created a completely different sound, which a new console could not accurately reproduce. He said he found the whole project a strange experience, as they had to listen to themselves chatting in the studio, 25–30 years previously. Martin also contributed extensive interviews to the Anthology documentary series. All three of the Anthology double-album releases reached no. 1 in the US.

Martin was not involved in producing the two new singles reuniting McCartney, Harrison, and Starr, who wanted to overdub two old Lennon demos provided by Yoko Ono—"Free as a Bird" and "Real Love". Though Martin's hearing loss was cited publicly as the rationale, he was not asked by the band members to produce the tracks; Jeff Lynne performed these duties instead.

Cirque du Soleil and Love[]

In 2006, Martin and his son, Giles Martin, remixed 80 minutes of Beatles music for the Las Vegas stage performance Love, a joint venture between Cirque du Soleil and the Beatles' Apple Corps Ltd. A soundtrack album from the show was released that same year. As part of his contribution to the soundtrack album, Martin orchestrated a score for a demo version of "While My Guitar Gently Weeps"; the orchestra session, recorded at AIR Lyndhurst Hall, was his final orchestral production. Love reached no. 3 in the UK charts and no. 4 in the US. Martin received the 2008 Grammy Awards for Best Compilation Soundtrack Album and Best Surround Sound Album.

"Fifth Beatle" status[]

Martin's contribution to the Beatles' work received regular critical acclaim, and led to him being described as the "fifth Beatle". In 2016, McCartney wrote that "If anyone earned the title of the fifth Beatle it was George". According to Alan Parsons, he had "great ears" and "rightfully earned the title of "fifth Beatle". Julian Lennon called Martin "the fifth Beatle, without question".

In the immediate aftermath of the Beatles' break-up, a time when he made many angry utterances, John Lennon trivialised Martin's importance to the Beatles' music. In his 1970 interview with Jann Wenner, Lennon said, "[Dick James] is another one of those people, who think they made us. They didn't. I'd like to hear Dick James' music and I'd like to hear George Martin's music, please, just play me some." Martin rebutted Lennon's comments in an interview in Melody Maker. In a 1971 letter to Paul McCartney, Lennon wrote, "When people ask me questions about 'What did George Martin really do for you?,' I have only one answer, 'What does he do now?' I noticed you had no answer for that! It's not a putdown, it's the truth." Lennon wrote that Martin took too much credit for the Beatles' music. Commenting specifically on "Revolution 9", Lennon said, "For Martin to state that he was 'painting a sound picture' is pure hallucination. Ask any of the other people involved. The final editing Yoko and I did alone."

In contrast, in 1971 Lennon said, "George Martin made us what we were in the studio. He helped us develop a language to talk to other musicians."

Selected non-Beatles hit records produced or co-produced by George Martin[]

During his career, Martin produced 30 number-one singles and 16 number-one albums in the UK – plus a record-tying 23 number-one singles and 19 number-one albums in the US (most of which were by the Beatles).

  • "You're Driving Me Crazy", The Temperance Seven (25 May 1961, no. 1 UK)
  • "My Kind of Girl", Matt Monro (31 July 1961, no. 5 UK)
  • "My Boomerang Won't Come Back", Charlie Drake (5 October 1961, no. 14 UK)
  • "Sun Arise", Rolf Harris (25 October 1962, no. 3 UK)
  • "How Do You Do It?", Gerry & the Pacemakers (11 April 1963, no. 1 UK)
  • "Bad to Me", Billy J. Kramer with the Dakotas (22 August 1963, no. 1 UK)
  • "Hello Little Girl", The Fourmost (30 August 1963, no. 9 UK)
  • "Little Children", Billy J. Kramer with the Dakotas (19 March 1964, no. 1 UK)
  • "Don't Let the Sun Catch You Crying", Gerry and the Pacemakers (4 July 1964, no. 4 US)
  • "You're My World", Cilla Black (1 August 1964, no. 1 UK)
  • "Walk Away", Matt Monro (4 September 1964, no. 4 UK)
  • "I Like It", Gerry & the Pacemakers (7 November 1964, no. 1 UK)
  • "I'll Be There", Gerry & the Pacemakers (30 January 1965, no. 15 UK)
  • "Ferry Cross the Mersey", Gerry & the Pacemakers (20 March 1965, no. 6 US)
  • "Goldfinger", Shirley Bassey (27 March 1965, no. 8 UK)
  • "Alfie", Cilla Black (10 September 1966, no. 9 UK)
  • "Step Inside Love", Cilla Black (8 March 1968, no. 8 UK)
  • "Live and Let Die", Paul McCartney & Wings (1 June 1973, no. 9 UK, no. 2 US)
  • "Tin Man", America (9 November 1974, no. 4 US)
  • "Lonely People", America (8 March 1975, no. 5 US)
  • "Sister Golden Hair", America (14 June 1975, no. 1 US)
  • "Oh! Darling", Robin Gibb (7 October 1978, no. 15 UK)
  • "The Night Owls", Little River Band (1981, no. 6 US)
  • "Ebony and Ivory", Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder (29 March 1982, no. 1 UK and US)
  • "Say Say Say", Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson (10 December 1983, no. 2 UK, no. 1 US)
  • "No More Lonely Nights", Paul McCartney (8 December 1984, no. 2 UK, no. 6 US)
  • "Morning Desire", Kenny Rogers (10 July 1985, no. 1 US Country)
  • "The Man I Love", Kate Bush & Larry Adler (18 July 1994, no. 27 UK)
  • "Candle in the Wind 1997", Elton John (11 October 1997, no. 1 UK and US)
  • Pure, Hayley Westenra (10 July 2003, no. 1 UK classical chart, no. 8 UK album chart)

Discography[]

  • Off the Beatle Track (1964 Parlophone PCS 3057)
  • By Popular Demand, A Hard Day's Night: Instrumental Versions of the Motion Picture Score (19 February 1964, United Artists)
  • George Martin Scores Instrumental Versions of the Hits (1965)
  • Help! (1965, Columbia TWO 102)
  • ..and I Love Her (1966, Columbia TWO 141)
  • George Martin Instrumentally Salutes The Beatle Girls (1966)
  • The Family Way (1967)
  • British Maid (1968, United Artists SULP 1196, released in the US as London by George)
  • Yellow Submarine (side one: The Beatles, side two: The George Martin Orchestra, 1969)
  • By George! (1970, Sunset SLS 50182, reissue of British Maid)
  • Live and Let Die (producer for Paul McCartney's song, and composer of musical score, 1973)
  • Beatles to Bond and Bach (1974)
  • In My Life (1998)
  • Produced by George Martin (2001)
  • The Family Way (2003)

Selected discography (as producer)[]

  • Sidney Torch – "Barwick Green" (The Archers theme) (1951)
  • Jack Parnell – "The White Suit Samba" (1951)
  • Jimmy Shand – "Bluebell Polka" (1952)
  • Kenneth McKellar – "Ae Fond Kiss" (1952)
  • Tommy Reilly – "Melody on the Move" (1952)
  • Adrian Boult / Jean Pougnet / London Philharmonic Orchestra – The Lark Ascending (1952)
  • Peter Ustinov – "Mock Mozart" (1952)
  • Eve Boswell – "Pickin' a Chicken" (1955)
  • Edna Savage – "Arrivederci Darling" (1955)
  • Eamonn Andrews – "The Shifting Whispering Sands" (1956)
  • Dick James – "Robin Hood" (1956)
  • The Ivor and Basil Kirchin Band – "Rock-A-Beatin' Boogie" (1956)
  • Johnny Dankworth – "Experiments With Mice" (1956)
  • Shirley Abicair – "Smiley" (1956)
  • Glen Mason – "Glendora" (1956)
  • Mandy Miller – "Nellie the Elephant" (1956)
  • The Vipers Skiffle Group – "Don't You Rock Me Daddy-O" (1957)
  • Jim Dale – "Be My Girl" (1957)
  • Flanders and Swann – At the Drop of a Hat (1957)
  • Ian Wallace – "The Hippopotamus Song" (1957)
  • Charlie Drake – "Splish Splash" (1958)
  • Peter Sellers – The Best of Sellers (1958)
  • Humphrey Lyttelton – "Saturday Jump" (1959)
  • Bruce Forsyth – "I'm in Charge" (1959)
  • Peter Sellers – Songs for Swingin' Sellers (1959)
  • Matt Monro – "Portrait of My Love" (1960)
  • Peter Sellers and Sophia Loren – "Goodness Gracious Me" (1960)
  • Beyond the Fringe (Original Cast Recording) (1961)
  • Dudley Moore – "Strictly for the Birds" (1961)
  • Bernard Cribbins – "Right Said Fred" (1962); "Hole in the Ground" (1962); "Gossip Calypso" (1962)
  • The Alberts – "Morse Code Melody" (1962)
  • Michael Bentine – "Football Results" (1962)
  • Terry Scott – "My Brother" (1962)
  • Christine Campbell – "If This Should Be a Dream" (1963)
  • Joan Sims – "Oh Not Again Ken" (1963)
  • Shirley Bassey – "I (Who Have Nothing)" (1963)
  • David Frost and Millicent Martin – That Was the Week That Was (1963)
  • Cambridge Circus (Original Cast Recording) (1963)
  • Flanders and Swann – At the Drop of Another Hat (1964)
  • Alma Cogan – "It's You" (1964)
  • The Scaffold – "2 Day's Monday" (1966)
  • Ron Goodwin – Adventure (1966)
  • Edwards Hand – Edwards Hand (1969)
  • Stan Getz – Marrakesh Express (1969)
  • Ringo Starr – Sentimental Journey (1970)
  • Seatrain – Seatrain (1970)
  • Seatrain – The Marblehead Messenger (1971)
  • The King's Singers – "The King's Singers Collection" (1972)
  • Paul Winter Consort – Icarus (1972)
  • The King's Singers – "A French Collection" (1973)
  • The King's Singers – "Deck the Hall" (1973)
  • John Williams – The Height Below (1973)
  • Stackridge – The Man in the Bowler Hat (1974, released as Pinafore Days in the US and Canada)
  • Mahavishnu Orchestra – Apocalypse (1974)
  • America – Holiday (1974)
  • Tommy Steele – My Life, My Song (1974)
  • Jeff Beck – Blow by Blow (1975)
  • America – Hearts (1975)
  • America – Hideaway (1976)
  • American Flyer – American Flyer (1976)
  • Jeff Beck – Wired (1976)
  • Cleo Laine – Born On a Friday (1976)
  • Jimmy Webb – El Mirage (1977)
  • America – Harbor (1977)
  • Neil Sedaka – A Song (1977)
  • Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1978, original soundtrack)
  • America – Silent Letter (1979)
  • Gary Brooker – No More Fear of Flying (1979)
  • Cheap Trick – All Shook Up (1980)
  • UFO – No Place to Run (1980)
  • Little River Band – Time Exposure (1981)
  • Ultravox – Quartet (1982)
  • Paul McCartney – Tug of War (1982)
  • Paul McCartney – Pipes of Peace (1983)
  • Paul McCartney – Give My Regards to Broad Street (1984)
  • Kenny Rogers - The Heart of the Matter (1985)
  • Peabo Bryson – Quiet Storm (1986)
  • Peabo Bryson – Positive (1988)
  • Andy Leek – Say Something (1988)
  • Yoshiki – Eternal Melody (1993)
  • Tommy (Original Cast Recording) (1993)
  • Larry Adler – The Glory of Gershwin (1994)
  • Celine Dion – "The Reason" (1997)
  • George Martin – In My Life (1998)
  • The Beatles – Love (2006)
Sir george martin

The Young George Martin.

References[]

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